The Research and Science Behind Brainwave Entrainment


Below we have listed out many resources and research articles on brainwave entrainment. Feel free to read through these articles or print as you like. Many people assume that this kind of technology has no science behind it, or is only “new age”, but that simply is not true. There is a reason this technology has been around for a while now and is even used by experts.

More Reading and Resources


  • Anand, B. K., Chhina, G. S., & Singh, B. (1961). Some Aspects of Electroencephalographic Studies in Yogis. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 13, 452-456.
  • Ashley-Farrand, T. (1999). Healing Mantras: Using Sound Affirmations for Personal Power, Creativity and Healing. (Ballantine Wellspring)
  • Bagchi, B. K., & Wenger, M. A. (1958). Simultaneous EEG and other recordings during some yogic practices. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 10, 193.
  • Banquet, J. P. (1972). EEG and meditation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 33, 454.
  • Banquet, J. P. (1973). Spectral analysis of the EEG in meditation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 35, 143-151.
  • Basar, E. (ed.) (1988) Dynamics of Sensory and Cognitive Processing by the Brain. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
  • Bear. (1977) Efficacy of alpha biofeedback training in elevating mood. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 45, 334.
  • Beaulieu, J. (1995). Music and Sound in the Healing Arts. (Barrytown Station Hill Press)
  • Beisteiner R, Altenmuller E, Lang W, Lindinger G, Deecke L. (1994) Measurement of brain potentials with EEG. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology. 6:311-27.
  • Boynton, T. (2001) Applied Research Using Alpha/Theta Training For Enhancing Creativity and Well-Being. Journal of Neurotherapy, 5.
  • Budzynski, T. H. (1986). Clinical applications of non-drug-induced states. In B. B. Wolman & M. Ullman (Eds.), Handbook of States of Consciousness, pp. 428-460. (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company).
  • Cade, C. M., & Coxhead, N. (1979). The Awakened Mind. Longmead, Great Britain: Element Books.
  • Coulson, Louis T. & Strickland, Alison (1990). Journeys Into Creative Problem Solving: Inviting Insights and Inventing Ideas Through Imagery. Applied Creative Learning Systems Inc., Seminole, FL.
  • Delmonte, M. M. (1984). Electrocortical activity and related phenomena associated with meditation practice: A literature review. International Journal of Neuroscience, 24, pp. 217-231.
  • Dewhurst-Maddock, O. (1993). The Book of Sound Therapy. (Fireside Publishers)
  • Empson, J. (1986). Human Brainwaves: The Psychological Significance of the Electroencephalogram. (London: The Macmillan Press Ltd.)
  • Etnier, J. L., Whitwer, S. S., Landers, D. M., Petruzzello, S. J., & Salazar, H. M. (1996) Changes in electroencephalographic activity associated with learning a novel motor task. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 67(3), 272-287.
  • Evans, F. J. (1972). Hypnosis and sleep: Techniques for exploring cognitive acitvity during sleep. In E. Fromm & R. E. Shor (Eds.), Hypnosis: Research developments and perspectives. Chicago: Aldine- Atherton.
  • Fischer, R. (1971). A cartography of ecstatic and meditative states. Science, 174 (4012), pp. 897-904.
  • Gaynor, Md., M.L. (1999) Sounds of Healing. (Broadway Books)
  • Gerken, G. M., Moushegian, G., Stillman, R. D., & Rupert, A. L. (1975). Human frequency-following responses to monaural and binaural stumuli. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 38, 379-386.
  • Gevins, A., Smith, M. E., McEvoy, L., & Yu, D. (1997) High-resolution EEG mapping of cortical activation related to working memory: Effects of task difficulty, type of processing, and practice. Cerebral Cortex. 7(4), 374-385.
  • Goleman, G. M. (1988). Meditative Mind: The Varieties of Meditative Experience. (New York: G. P. Putnam).
  • Green, E. E. & Green, A. M. (1986). Biofeedback and states of consciousness. In B. B. Wolman & M. Ullman (Eds.), Handbook of States of Consciousness, pp. 553-589. (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company).
  • Guilfoyle, G. & Carbone, D. (1996). The facilitation of attention utilizing therapeutic sounds. Presented at the New York State Association of Day Service Providers Symposium, October 18, 1996, Albany, New York.
  • Hassler M. (1990) Functional cerebral asymmetries and cognitive abilities in musicians, painters, and controls. Cognitive Brain Research. 13:1-17.
  • Hink, R. F., Kodera, K., Yamada, O., Kaga, K., & Suzuki, J. (1980). Binaural interaction of a beating frequency following response. Audiology, 19, pp. 36-43.
  • Hirai, T. (1960) Electroencephalograpic Study of Zen Meditation, Psychiat. Neurology. 62, 76-105.
  • Hutchison, M. (1986). Megabrain: New tools and techniques for brain growth and mind expansion. (Beech Tree Books). pp. 261-281.
  • Hunt, V. V. (1995). Infinite Mind: The Science of Human Vibrations. (Malibu: Malibu Publishing Company).
  • Jovanov, E., Rakovi, D., Car, M. (1995) Evaluation of state of consciousness using software support for monitoring spatio-temporal EEG changes, ISCA Intl. Conference on Computer Applications in Engineering and Medicine.
  • Kamiya, J. (1969) Operant control of the EEG alpha rhythm and some of its reported effects on consciousness. In Tart (Ed.), Altered states of consciousness (pp. 519-529).
  • Kennerly, R. C. (1994). An empirical investigation into the effect of beta frequency binaural beat audio signals on four measures of human memory. (Department of Psychology, West Georgia College, Carrolton, Georgia).
  • Klinger, E., Gregoire, K. C., & Barta, S. G. (1973) Physiological correlates of mental activity: Eye movements, alpha, and heart rate during imaging, suppression, concentration, search, and choice. Psychophysiology, 10, 471-477.
  • Marsh, J.T., Brown, W.S., & Smith, J.C. (1975). Far-field recorded frequency-following responses: Correlates of low pitch auditory perception in humans. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 38, pp. 113-119.
  • Martindale, C. (1978) Creativity, consciousness, and cortical arousal. Journal of Altered States of Consciousness, 3, 69-87.
  • Martindale, C. & Greenough, J. (1973) The Differential Effect of Increased Arousal on Creative and Intellectual Performance. The Journal of Genetic Psychology. 123, 329-335.
  • Martindale, C. & Hasenfus, N. (1978) EEG Differences as a Function of Creativity, Stage of the Creative Process, and Effort to be Original. Biological Psychology. 6, 157-167.
  • McMoneagle, J. (1993). Mind Trek. (Norfolk: Hampton Roads Publishing Company).
  • Molle, M., Marshall, L., Wolf, B., Horst, L., & Born, J. (1999). EEG complexity and performance measures of creative thinking. Psychophysiology. 36
  • Newman, J. (1997) Putting the puzzle together Part I: Toward a general theory of the neural correlates of consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies, Vol. 4 No. 1, pp. 47-66.
  • Tart, C. T. (1969). States of Consciousness. (New York: E. P. Dutton & Company).
  • Tice, L. E. & Steinberg, A. (1989). A Better World, A Better You. pp. 57-62. (New Jersey: Prentice Hall).
  • Turner, J. W. & Fine, T. H. (1985) Effects of Restricted Environmental Stimulation Therapy (REST) on Self-control of Heart Rate in Health and Clinical Psychology. pp. 477-490. (Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. North-Holland).
  • Waldkoetter, R. O. (1983). The use of audio-guided stress reduction to enhance performance. Paper presented at the 25th Annual Conference of the Military Testing Association, Gulf Shores AL.
  • West, M. A. (1980). Meditation and the EEG. Psychological Medicine, 10, pp. 369-375.

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